lion jesters

Jovis Vicilini

b. 300 B.C. ?

( Iovi, Jove, Jupiter, Juppiter, Vicilinus, Visilini, Visilinus )

Denarius of Macrinus

Denarius of Macrinus (217-218)


n the reverse side of a denarius of the Roman Emperor Macrinus stands a nude Jupiter holding a thunderbolt in his right hand and a scepter in his left. The inscription on the reverse reads IOVI CONSERVATORI.(1) »

Sestertius of Trajan

Sestertius of Trajan (115 AD)

Likewise, on the reverse side of an orichalcum sestertius of the Roman Emperor Trajan stands a nude Jupiter with his right arm extended while holding his cloak out in protection of the Emperor Trajan who stands below him. The inscription on the reverse reads CONSERVATORI PATRIS PATRIAE.(2) »

CONSERVATORI PATRIS PATRIAE … Jupiter standing to the left, a large cloak pendent from his shoulders; his right hand extended holds one side of the cloak spread out as a protection to the emperor, who is robed and stands on the right side of Jupiter, and holds up his right hand as if addressing some persons, or in token of thanks for protection afforded. …

Jupiter is frequently introduced on coins of the emperors, but only on the coins of this emperor in this peculiar character of conservator or preserver of the father of his country, the usual legend being IOVI CONSERVATORI, and applicable to Jupiter only, meaning Divine Providence.

Domitian had great reverence for Jupiter Conservator, and erected a temple to him.

(Hobler, Records of Roman History, Volume 1, p. 265.) (3) »

Aureus of Trajan

Aureus of Trajan (98-117)

On a gold aureus of the Roman Emperor Trajan stands a nude Jupiter holding a thunderbolt in his right hand and a scepter in his left as he protects Trajan who stands below him. Once again, the inscription on the reverse reads CONSERVATORI PATRIS PATRIAE.(4) »

The diminutive figure of the Emperor, contrasting with the size of the god, indicates their respective importance. Most coins bear the legend Conservatori patris patriae, i.e., to the preserver of the father of the fatherland.

(Dvornik, Early Christian and Byzantine Political Philosophy, p. 504.) (5) »

Aureus of Licinius

Aureus of Licinius II. (317-324)

And a gold aureus of the Roman Emperor Licinius II displays an exceptional image of Jupiter enthroned. He is seated facing forward, enthroned on a platform, holding Victory on a globe in his right hand and a scepter in his left. In the left field beside him is an eagle with a wreath in its beak and in the right field a star. Here, the inscription on the reverse reads IOVI CONSERVATORI CAES, meaning Jupiter Protector of Caesar.(6)(7) » » »

Even when the Sun is beginning to conquer the Roman world we do well to remember that Jupiter remains for many the great god of Rome. We see him on an aureus of Septimius Severus, naked save for a cloth over his left shoulder, with a scepter in his left hand, clasping the hand of the emperor, in military uniform, with his right. On another he is seated, holding out a Victory on a globe in his right hand, with an eagle before him; the inscription is to Jupiter the Protector, IOVI CONSER. Elsewhere he is called Jupiter Victor, or Unconquerable (INVICTVS), bearing the epithet which became the particular prerogative of the Sun. Under Caracalla we see him advancing with thunderbolt at the ready; here he is Jupiter the Defender, IOVI PROPVGNATORI. Macrinus honours Jupiter the Protector, whom we see sheltering him as he stands at the god’s feet. Even Elagabalus does not wholly oust Jupiter from the coins; the god appears seated, with his eagle, holding out Victory. Jupiter, Mars and Sol are the three most prominent deities in the coinage of Severus Alexander; Jupiter appears as Conservator (Protector), Propugnator (Defender), Stator (Supporter) … Maximus and Balbinus … were careful to put themselves under the protection of Jupiter by offering sacrifices in the Capitol, and their coinage naturally gives prominence to Jupiter Conservator.

(Ferguson, The Religions of the Roman Empire, p. 41-42. )(8) »

Quickly, through this brief study of Roman coins, with their images so well preserved, we discover a number of interrelated epithets assigned by the Romans to Jupiter. The title IOVI CONSERVATORI indicates Divine Providence, meaning that as Conservator Jupiter would have been hailed as the Preserver, Protector, Guardian and Keeper(9) of his people.

Roman Bronze Statuette of Jupiter

Roman Bronze Statuette of Jupiter
First or Second Century AD
British Museum, London

But, of course, this idea of Divine Providence is not merely expressed through inscriptions on Roman coins; nor is it solely limited to the expressions IOVI CONSERVATORI and IOVI PROPVGNATORI. Instead, we discover a number of bynames that the Romans once ascribed to the mighty Jupiter. There is one that is of primary importance to our research. It is to be found in the writings of Titus Livius.(10) In the 24th book of his quite famous History of Rome(11), Livy describes for us a battle that takes place in the year 213 BC. Here he writes et in Jovis Vicilini templo, quod in Compsano agro est, arma concrepuisse(12)(13) ( … a clashing of arms was heard in the temple of Jupiter Vicilinus in the neighbourhood of Compsa … Liv. 24, 44, 8.)(14)

Map of Compsa

Livy mentions incidentally a temple “in agro Compsano,” dedicated to Jupiter Vicilinus, an epithet otherwise unknown (xxiv.44). According to a local antiquary, some remains of it were still visible at a spot named Voghino in the neighbourhood of Conza.

(Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, p. 652.)(15) » »

Latin-German dictionaries translate Vicilini as der Wachsame; while Latin-English dictionaries translate it as the Vigilant or the Watchful One. In addition, we are told that it serves as a byword, byname, surname or epiteth of Jupiter:

Vicilinus, i. m. (wahrsch. von vigil), der Wachsame, Juppiter Vicilinus, Liv. 24, 44, 8.

(Georges, Ausführliches Lateinisch-Deutsches Handwörterbuch, p. 2050.)(16) »

Vicilinus, i, m. (viell. von vigil), der Wachsame, Beiwort des Jupiter, Liv. 24, 44, 8.

(Freund, Wörterbuch der Lateinischen Sprache, p. 970.)(17) »

Vicilinus, i. m. ein Beiname des Juppiter, Liv. 24, 44 (al. Visilini).

(Georges, Lateinisch-Deutsches und Deutsch-Lateinisches Handwörterbuch, p. 1863.)(18) »

Vicilinus, i. m. The Vigilant, a surname of Jupiter, Liv. 24, 44, 8.

(Riddle, A Copious and Critical Latin-English Lexicon, p. 1350.)(19)

(Anthon, A Latin-English and English-Latin Dictionary, p. 395.)(20)»

Vicilinus, -i. m. (perhaps from vigil), the watchful one, Juppiter Vicilinus, Liv.

(Marchant, Cassell's Latin Dictionary, p. 617.)(21) »

Vicilinus, i. m. vigil, the Watchful, the Vigilant, an epithet of Jupiter, Liv. 24.44.8.

(Lewis and Short, A Latin Dictionary.)(22) »

Surely it is quite apparent that Jupiter Vicilinus is a title relatively synonymous with IOVI CONSERVATORI. The watchfulness of Jupiter is an inseparable attribute of Divine Providence, where the act of watching is inherent in the act of protecting. The idea that Jupiter watches over his people is certainly basic to Roman ideology. Thus we find it fully expressed in classical Roman literature. We have only to turn to Virgil’s Aeneid, where Virgil speaks to the audience of his age:

Panditur interea domus omnipotentis Olympi,
Conciliumque vocat divom pater atque hominum rex,
Sideream in sedem: terras unde arduus omnis,
Castraque Dardanidum adspectat, populosque Latinos.

(Pitt, The Works of Virgil, Volume 4, pp. 84–87.)(23) »

Omnipotent Olympus sees the while
Its palace doors thrown wide, and the Supreme
Father of Gods and King of men convokes
A solemn council in his starred abode,
From whence sublime all nations he surveys,
The camp Dardanian, and the Latin realms.

(Miller, The Aeneid of Virgil in English Blank Verse, Volume 2, pp. 369-370.)(24) »

Jetzt wird geöffnet das Haus des allmachtvollen Olympus,
Und Versammlung beruft der Götter und Sterblichen Vater
Zum sternhellen Palast; wo hoch auf die Länder der Welt her
Und auf das Dardanerlager er schaut und das Volk der Latiner.

(Voß, Vergils Äneis, Chapter 20.)(25) »

Indessen sind die allmachtvollen Hallen
Des strahlenden Olympus aufgethan.
Allvater rief zum Götterrath; da wallen
Die Himmlischen zum Sterpalast hinan.
Er läßt die Augen auf die Erde fallen,
Auf’s Teukrer-Lager und auf Latiums Plan,

(Lots, Virgil's Aeneide, p. 344.)(26) »

The first German example translates into English as “He allows the eyes upon the earth to fall”. And the second becomes “[from] where [on] high, upon the countries of the world … he looks”. Thus Virgil clearly states that Jupiter watches down upon the nations so as to perform his role as Conservator or Overseer(27) of mankind. He sits above in his starry abode from whence he judges the acts of gods and men:

Jupiter and Council

The Council of the Gods(28)
1515-1517 AD

Jupiter, in a council of the Gods, disapproves of what has been done to excite the war, and desires that there be no further intervention: but finding Juno vehement and unchanged, declares his own impartiality in the contest, and that the several destinies of the belligerents shall remain undisturbed.

(Miller, The Aeneid of Virgil in English Blank Verse, Volume 2, p. 369.) (24) »

Juppiter schwört, nachdem er Venus und Juno umsonst zur Friedfertigkeit ermahnt hat, daß er ohne Teilnahme den Krieg dem Schicksal überlasse.

(Voß, Vergils Äneis, Chapter 20.) (25) »

Tetradrachm of Alexander the Great

Tetradrachm of Alexander the Great. (336-323 BC)(29)
with Zeus Seated on His Throne

Certainly, Virgil is known to have borrowed extensively from the Greeks. In this exchange, the Roman Jupiter is identical to the Greek Zeus; while the Roman Minerva is identical to the Greek Athena. So among the Greeks, we discover very familiar storylines. Thus, at the end of Homer’s Odyssey, Zeus decides to put an end to the fighting in the battle between the Greeks and the Trojans. With the hurling of a thunderbolt, he instructs his daughter Athena to intercede in the activities of Odysseus. She diverts him from seeking revenge upon the Trojans by acting as his Mentor and insisting that he bring an end to the fighting.:

"ἴσχεσθε πτολέμου, Ἰθακήσιοι, ἀργαλέοιο,
ὥς κεν ἀναιμωτί γε διακρινθῆτε τάχιστα."

ὣς φάτ' Ἀθηναίη, τοὺς δὲ χλωρὸν δέος εἷλεν:
τῶν δ' ἄρα δεισάντων ἐκ χειρῶν ἔπτατο τεύχεα,
πάντα δ' ἐπὶ χθονὶ πῖπτε, θεᾶς ὄπα φωνησάσης: 535
πρὸς δὲ πόλιν τρωπῶντο λιλαιόμενοι βιότοιο.
σμερδαλέον δ' ἐβόησε πολύτλας δῖος Ὀδυσσεύς,
οἴμησεν δὲ ἀλεὶς ὥς τ' αἰετὸς ὑψιπετήεις.
καὶ τότε δὴ Κρονίδης ἀφίει ψολόεντα κεραυνόν,
κὰδ δ' ἔπεσε πρόσθε γλαυκώπιδος ὀβριμοπάτρης. 540
δὴ τότ' Ὀδυσσῆα προσέφη γλαυκῶπις Ἀθήνη:

"διογενὲς Λαερτιάδη, πολυμήχαν' Ὀδυσσεῦ,
ἴσχεο, παῦε δὲ νεῖκος ὁμοιί̈ου πολέμοιο,
μή πως τοι Κρονίδης κεχολώσεται εὐρύοπα Ζεύς."

ὣς φάτ' Ἀθηναίη, ὁ δ' ἐπείθετο, χαῖρε δὲ θυμῷ. 545
ὅρκια δ' αὖ κατόπισθε μετ' ἀμφοτέροισιν ἔθηκεν
Παλλὰς Ἀθηναίη, κούρη Διὸς αἰγιόχοιο,
Μέντορι εἰδομένη ἠμὲν δέμας ἠδὲ καὶ αὐδήν.

(Homer, The Odyssey.) (30) »

‘Ithacans, stop this disastrous fight and separate at once before blood is shed.’

Athene’s cry struck panic into the Ithacans, who let their weapons go, in their terror at the goddess’ voice. The arms all fell to earth, an the men turned citywards, intent on their salvation. The indomitable Odysseus raised a terrible war-cry, gathered himself together and pounced on them like a swooping eagle. But at this moment Zeus let fly a flaming bolt, which fell in front of the bright-eyed Daughter of that formidable Sire. Athene called out at once to Odysseus by his royal titles, commanding him to hold his hand and bring this civil strife to a finish, for fear of offending the ever watchful Zeus.

Odysseus obeyed her, with happy heart. And presently Pallas Athene, Daughter of aegis-wearing Zeus, still using Mentor’s form of voice for her disguise, established peace between the two contending forces.

(Rieu, The Odyssey, p. 351.)(31) »

"Men of Ithaca," she cried, cease this dreadful war, and settle the matter at once without further bloodshed."

On this pale fear seized every one; they were so frightened that their arms dropped from their hands and fell upon the ground at the sound of the goddess's voice, and they fled back to the city for their lives. But Ulysses gave a great cry, and gathering himself together swooped down like a soaring eagle. Then the son of Saturn sent a thunderbolt of fire that fell just in front of Minerva, so she said to Ulysses, "Ulysses, noble son of Laertes, stop this warful strife, or Jove will be angry with you."

Thus spoke Minerva, and Ulysses obeyed her gladly. Then Minerva assumed the form and voice of Mentor, and presently made a covenant of peace between the two contending parties.

(Butler, The Odyssey of Homer, p. 323.)(32) »

Also rief Athenäa: da faßte sie bleiches Entsetzen.
Schnell aus den Händen hinweg der Erschrockenen flogen die Waffen,
All' aus die Erde gestürzt, da den Ruf austönte die Göttin; 535
Gegen die Stadt nun flohn sie, in ängstlicher Sorg' um das Leben.
Aber fürchterlich schrie der herrliche Dulder Odysseus,
Und anstürmt' er gesaßt, wie ein hochfligender Adler.
Jetzo schwang der Kronide daher den dampfenden Glutstrahl:
Dieser schlug vor Athene, die Tochter des schrecklichen Vaters. 540
Und zu Odysseus sprach die Herrscherin Pallas Athene:

Edler Laertiad', erfindungsreicher Odysseus,
Halte dich, zähme den Kamps des allverderbenden Krieges,
Daß nicht Zorn dich treffe vom waltenden Ordner der Welt Zeus.

Also gebot ihm Athen’; und mit freudiger Seele gehorcht’ er. 545
Zwischen ihm und dem Volk erneuerte jetzo das Bündniß
Selber Pallas Athene, des Aegiserschütterers Tochter,
Mentorn gliech in Allem, sowohl an Gestalt wie an Stimme.

(Voß, Homer's Werke: Homer's Odyssee, p. 278.)(34) »

Athene and Zeus Stop the Fighting

Athene and Zeus Stop the Fighting(34)
Etching by Theodor van Thulden (1606-1669)
Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco

In Livy, Virgil and Homer, the strife of mankind is under the oversight of the the wide-eyed(35), far-seeing(36) Zeus (εὐρύοπα Ζεύς). The German translates into English as “that wrath does not come upon you from the governing ruler of the world, Zeus.”(37)(38) So in Homer, as in Virgil, the watchfulness of Jupiter Vicilinus can also be seen as an important aspect of his role as Ruler or Governor of the world. Similarly, this theme of watchfullness is taken up even further in Hesiod’s Works and Days(39):

ὦ βασιλῆς, ὑμεῖς δὲ καταφράζεσθε καὶ αὐτοὶ
τήνδε δίκην: ἐγγὺς γὰρ ἐν ἀνθρώποισιν ἐόντες 250
ἀθάνατοι φράζονται, ὅσοι σκολιῇσι δίκῃσιν
ἀλλήλους τρίβουσι θεῶν ὄπιν οὐκ ἀλέγοντες.
τρὶς γὰρ μύριοί εἰσιν ἐπὶ χθονὶ πουλυβοτείρῃ
ἀθάνατοι Ζηνὸς φύλακες θνητῶν ἀνθρώπων:
οἵ ῥα φυλάσσουσίν τε δίκας καὶ σχέτλια ἔργα
ἠέρα ἑσσάμενοι, πάντη φοιτῶντες ἐπ᾽ αἶαν. 255
ἡ δέ τε παρθένος ἐστὶ Δίκη, Διὸς ἐκγεγαυῖα,
κυδρή τ᾽ αἰδοίη τε θεῶν, οἳ Ὄλυμπον ἔχουσιν.
καί ῥ᾽ ὁπότ᾽ ἄν τίς μιν βλάπτῃ σκολιῶς ὀνοτάζων,
αὐτίκα πὰρ Διὶ πατρὶ καθεζομένη Κρονίωνι 260
γηρύετ᾽ ἀνθρώπων ἄδικον νόον, ὄφρ᾽ ἀποτίσῃ
δῆμος ἀτασθαλίας βασιλέων, οἳ λυγρὰ νοεῦντες
ἄλλῃ παρκλίνωσι δίκας σκολιῶς ἐνέποντες.
ταῦτα φυλασσόμενοι, βασιλῆς, ἰθύνετε †δίκας
δωροφάγοι, σκολιέων δὲ δικέων ἐπὶ πάγχυ λάθεσθε. 265

οἷ γ᾽ αὐτῷ κακὰ τεύχει ἀνὴρ ἄλλῳ κακὰ τεύχων,
ἡ δὲ κακὴ βουλὴ τῷ βουλεύσαντι κακίστη.

πάντα ἰδὼν Διὸς ὀφθαλμὸς καὶ πάντα νοήσας
καί νυ τάδ᾽, αἴ κ᾽ ἐθέλῃσ᾽, ἐπιδέρκεται, οὐδέ ἑ λήθει,
οἵην δὴ καὶ τήνδε δίκην πόλις ἐντὸς ἐέργει. 270
νῦν δὴ ἐγὼ μήτ᾽ αὐτὸς ἐν ἀνθρώποισι δίκαιος
εἴην μήτ᾽ ἐμὸς υἱός: ἐπεὶ κακὸν ἄνδρα δίκαιον
ἔμμεναι, εἰ μείζω γε δίκην ἀδικώτερος ἕξει:
ἀλλὰ τά γ᾽ οὔ πω ἔολπα τελεῖν Δία μητιόεντα.

(Hesiod, Works and Days, pp. 21–23.)(40) »

(ll. 248-264) You princes, mark well this punishment you also; for the deathless gods are near among men and mark all those who oppress their fellows with crooked judgments, and reck not the anger of the gods. For upon the bounteous earth Zeus has thrice ten thousand spirits, watchers of mortal men, and these keep watch on judgments and deeds of wrong as they roam, clothed in mist, all over the earth. And there is virgin Justice, the daughter of Zeus, who is honoured and reverenced among the gods who dwell on Olympus, and whenever anyone hurts her with lying slander, she sits beside her father, Zeus the son of Cronos, and tells him of men’s wicked heart, until the people pay for the mad folly of their princes who, evilly minded, pervert judgment and give sentence crookedly. Keep watch against this, you princes, and make straight your judgments, you who devour bribes; put crooked judgments altogether from your thoughts.

(ll. 265-266) He does mischief to himself who does mischief to another, and evil planned harms the plotter most.

(ll. 267-273) The eye of Zeus, seeing all and understanding all, beholds these things too, if so he will, and fails not to mark what sort of justice is this that the city keeps within it. Now, therefore, may neither I myself be righteous among men, nor my son – for then it is a bad thing to be righteous – if indeed the unrighteous shall have the greater right. But I think that all-wise Zeus will not yet bring that to pass.

(Evelyn-White, Hesiod, Homer, The Homeric Hymns and Homerica, pp. 21–23.)(42) »

Prüfet jedoch auch ihr, o Herrscher, mit Ernst, wie des Rechtes
Ihr jetzt waltet; da nah' Unsterbliche wandeln den Menschen,
Die des achten, sooft durch trügende Pflege des Rechtes 250
Einer den andern verdirbt, nicht achtend der Götter Vergeltung.
Weilen tausende doch und tausend auf nährender Erde,
Unter die Menschen gesetzt von Zeus, unsterbliche Wächter.
Diese beobachten Taten des Rechts, und gewaltsame Taten,
Während in bergende Luft sie gehüllt durchschreiten die Lande. 255
Aber es wacht auch Dike, des Zeus jungfräuliche Tochter,
Ruhmreich und bei den Göttern geehrt, des Olympos Bewohnern.
Und wenn immer sie einer mit tückischem Hohne gekränkt hat, -
Flugs sitzt neben dem Vater sie dann, dem Kroniden, und klagt ihm
Über den frevelnden Sinn des Geschlechts, dass büße das Volk ihr 260
Seiner Beherrscher Vergehn, die voll unseliger Ränke
Beugen der ehrlichen Gang der Gesetze durch gleißende Worte.
Hütet euch denn, o Herrscher, und lenkt aufs rechte die Rede,
Aber auf immer vergesst, ihr Käuflichen, frecher Verdrehung!

Unheil schmiedet sich selbst, wer Unheil schmiedet dem andern, 265
Und ein verderblicher Rat ist verderblicher dem, der ihn aussann.

Wachsam stets durchschauet des Zeus allsehendes Auge,
Wenn's ihm beliebt, das Getrieb' auch hier; nicht bleibt ihm verborgen,
Wie um die Pflege des Rechts im Innern der Stadt es bestellt ist.
Darum, so wie es steht, muss selbst ich entsagen dem Rechte, 270
Ich mit dem Sohn; denn schlimm in dem Volk steht's für den Gerechten,
Wenn stets günstiger fällt für den Ungerechten das Urteil.
Doch ich hoffe, der Donnerer Zeus vollendet das nimmer.

(Gebhardt, Hesiod, Hesiodos, Werke und Tage.)(42) »

Roman Marble based on Greek Original of Zeus

Roman Marble based on Greek Original of Zeus »
c. 300 BC
Baths of Otricoli

Here Hesiod extends even further the meanings to be found in the name Jupiter Vicilinus. A translation of the German phrase “Wachsam stets durchschauet des Zeus allsehendes Auge” provides an interpretation that goes beyond the simple Latin-German definition der Wachsame; where the verb durchschauen suggests "to see through something, to figure something out". Thus the literal translation into English becomes “always watchful, the all-seeing eye of Zeus sees through”. This modifies ever so slightly "The eye of Zeus, seeing all and understanding all.” Seeing through is seeing completely. No secrets remain. Therefore, seeing all is the same as knowing all. This ancient idea of a vigilant, all-seeing and all-knowing god is found not only in Roman and Greek literature but echoes back to an earlier Indo-European tradition.(43)(44) But surely this idea finds its fullest illumination in the writings of the Greek Hesiod:

Justice, however, is more than a social virtue between men; it is the chief attribute of Zeus, personified as his daughter and constant attendant: “Justice is the daughter of Zeus, glorified and honored by the gods who hold Olympus; and whenever anyone does her wrong with perverse blame, straightway she sits by Zeus, son of Cronos, and she tells him the thoughts of unjust men, that the people may pay for the folly of the princes who by their wrongful purposed and crooked speeches turn judgments from the right course.” In his work of defending justice Zeus is aided not only by his daughter, but by a host of watchful guardians, intermediaries who report mortals’ deeds: “Thrice ten thousand are the immortal servants of Zeus upon the rich earth, who watch mortal men. Clad in mist they fare to and fro on the earth watching deeds of justice and wrongful acts.” Justice then never fails to bring sooner or later the due return to right and wrong actions; from her and the watchful messengers of Zeus there is no escape. The Homeric man had recognized that righteousness is better than evil and that the wicked are constantly threatened by punishment; but Hesiod in his Works and Days goes somewhat further than Homer, in that he makes justice a necessary attribute of the gods as well as men.

(Moore, Religious Thought of the Greeks, p. 32.) (45) »

Fall of the Giants

Fall of the Giants(46)
Giulio Romano (1525-1535)
Palazzo del Te, Mantova, Italy

The Zeus of the Greeks became the Jupiter of the Romans. His oversight of mankind is fully apparent. His role as Conserver, Protector, Defender, Guardian, Keeper and Watcher are aspects of a singular nature. Jupiter, like Zeus, is All-Seeing and All-Knowing. He is the All-Wise Ruler and Judge of men. And so, in the name Jovis Vicilini, we must understand the multiple meanings that describe Divine Providence, where a Vigilant Jupiter is also the ultimate Conservator of humankind.

Photo Photo Photo


Silver denarius of Macrinus (217-218). Indicating Jupiter as IOVI CONSERVATORI. Retrieved on August 6, 2012: »


Orichalcum sestertius of Trajan (115 AD). Indicating Jupiter as CONSERVATORI PATRIS PATRIAE. Retrieved on August 6, 2012: »


Hobler, Francis, Records of Roman History: From Cnæus Pompeius to Tiberius Constantinus, as Exhibited on the Roman Coins, Volume 1. Westminster: John Bowyer Nichols and Sons, 1860, p. 265. Retrieved from Google Books on August 6, 2012: »


Gold aureus of Trajan (98–117 AD). Indicating Jupiter as CONSERVATORI PATRIS PATRIAE. Retrieved on August 6, 2012: »


Dvornik, Francis, Early Christian and Byzantine Political Philosophy: Urigins and Background, Volume 2. Washington, D.C: Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies, trustees for Harvard University, 1966, p. 504. Retrieved from Google Books on August 6, 2012: »


Gold aureus of Licinius II (317-324 AD). Indicating Jupiter as IOVI CONSERVATORI CAES. Retrieved on August 6, 2012: » »


IOVI CONSERVATORI CAES: Jupiter Protector of Caesar. Retrieved on August 6, 2012: »


Ferguson, John, The Religions of the Roman Empire. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1985, p. 41-42. Retrieved from Google Books on August 6, 2012: »


Nugent, Thomas, New French-English (English-French) pronouncing dictionary, on the basis of Nugent, by a member of the University of Paris. London: William Tegg, 1875, p. 116. Retrieved from Google Books on August 6, 2012: »


Titus Livius, otherwise known as Livy, was born in 59 BC and died around 17 AD: see Magill, Frank N., Dictionary of World Biography: Volume 1: The Ancient World. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 2003, p. 668. Retrieved from Google Books on August 6, 2012: »


The Latin title, Ab Urbe Condita Libri, literally translates as "Books Since the City's Founding", but this series of books is most commonly known in English as The History of Rome. see Livy and Jaeger, Mary, A Livy Reader: Selections from Ab Urbe Condita, Mundelein: Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, 2011, p. xi. Retrieved from Google Books on August 6, 2012: »


Livy, Ab Urbe Condita, Ex typographia Societatis Wuertembergicae, 1823, p. 803. Retrieved from Google Books on August 6, 2012: »


Livy and Weissenborn, W., ed., Ab Urbe Condita Libri, Volume 5. Berlin: Weidmann, 1871, p. 94. Retrieved from Google Books on August 6, 2012: »


Livy and Roberts, Rev. Canon, trans., The History of Rome, Vol. 3. London: J. M. Dent & Sons, Ltd., 1905. Retrieved on August 6, 2012: »


Smith, William, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, illustrated by numerous engravings on wood.. London. Walton and Maberly, 1854, p. 652. Retrieved from Google Books on August 6, 2012: » »


Georges, Karl Ernst, Ausführliches Lateinisch-Deutsches Handwörterbuch: Aus den Quellen zusammengetragen und mit besonderer Bezugnahme auf Synonymik und Antiquitäten unter Berücksichtigung der besten Hülfsmittel. K – Z,. Leipzig: Hahn, 1869, p. 2050. Retrieved from Google Books on August 6, 2012: »


Freund, Wilhelm, Wörterbuch der lateinischen Sprache nach historisch-genetischen Principien, mit steter Berücksichtigung der Grammatik, Synonymik und Alterthumskunde: nebst mehreren Beilagen linguistischen und archäologischen Inhalts. R - Z, Volume 4,. Leipzig: Hahn, 1840. p. 970. Retrieved from Google Books on August 7, 2012: »


Georges, Karl Ernst, Scheller, Immanuel J. G., and Lünemann, Georg Heinrich, Lateinisch-Deutsches und Deutsch-Lateinisches Handwörterbuch. Leipzig: Hahn, 1838, p.1863. Retrieved from Google Books on August 7, 2012: »


Riddle, Joseph Esmond and Freund, William, A copious and critical Latin-English lexicon. London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1849, p. 1350.


Anthon, Charles, Freund, William, Kaltschmidt, Jacob Heinrich, and George, Karl Ernst A Latin-English and English-Latin dictionary: for the use of schools: chiefly from the lexicons of Freund, Georges, and Kaltschmidt. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1859, p. 395. Retrieved from Google Books on August 7, 2012: »


Marchant, James Robert Vernam and Charles, Joseph Fletcher, Cassell's Latin dictionary: (Latin-English and English-Latin). London: Cassell & Company, 1892, p. 617. Retrieved from Google Books on August 7, 2012: »


Lewis, Charlton T., and Short, Charles, A Latin Dictionary; Founded on Andrews' edition of Freund's Latin dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1879. Retrieved from Perseus on August 7, 2012: »


The Aeneid is dated to between 29 and 19 BC. Pitt, Christopher, trans., The works of Virgil: in Latin & English. The Aeneid, Volume 4, London: J. Dodsley, 1778, pp. 84–87. Retrieved from Google Books on August 7, 2012: »


Miller, John, The Aeneid of Virgil in English Blank Verse, Volume 2, London: Macmillan and Co., 1863, pp. 369-370. Retrieved from Google Books on August 7, 2012: »


Voß, Johann Heinrich, trans., Vergils Äneis, Leipzig: Philipp Reclam jun., 1875. Retrieved from Projekt Gutenberg on August 7, 2012: »


Lots, P. E. L., trans. Virgil's Aeneide, Leipzig: Arnold. 1862. p. 344. Retrieved from Google Books on August 7, 2012: »


see: Estes, James Martin, Peace, Order And the Glory of God: Secular Authority and the Church in The Thought of Luther and Melanchthon, 1518-1559, Leiden: Brill, 2005, p. 50. Retrieved from Google Books on August 7, 2012: »

In 1522 Luther had commented as follows on the etymology of episcopus: “[O]nly those who tend the people with preaching and sacraments … should be called bishops … The name episcopus also proves this. It derives from epi and scopein [in Greek], attendere, superintendere [in Latin], ‘to tend’ and ‘to be a guardian’ of the people, just like a guardian or watchman in a town. Thus episcopus or ‘bishop’ in Greek really means ‘guardian, watchman, overseer’ in German. In Hebrew it means visitator a visitando, a visitor who goes to the people to see what is afflicting them …” LW 39:282-282; WA 10/2:143.26 (Against the Spiritual Estate of the Pope and Bishops Falsely So Called/Wider den falsch genantten geystlichen stand des Babst und der bischoffen). »

Das ist nu der dritte spruch S. Pauli der gottlichen ordenung, das alleyn die sollen Bischoff heyssen unnd seyn, die des volcks wartten mit predigen unnd sacramenten alß der pfarrer mit yhen Capellan wenn sie für Bischoff hengst und bischoff reutter kundten tzü komen. Das weysset auch der Name Episcopus ab Epi et scopin, attendere, superintendere, wartten unnd wachen auffs volck, wie eyn wechter odder hüter auff eyner statt. Das Episcopus odder Bischoff auff kriechisch eygentlich heyst auff deutsch eyn wechter, eyn hütter, tzü seher. Und ynn der Hebreischen sprach heyst er visitator a visitando. Eyn heymsucher, der tzü den leutten geht un sihet, was yhn gepricht, ... » » »


"Council of the Gods" by Raphael (1515-1517 AD), from Impelluso, Lucia, Gods and Heroes in Art, Los Angeles: Getty Publications, 2002, pp. 142-143. » Retrieved from Claudiasensi on August 7, 2012: »

"In this painting we find Jupiter sitting at the right, a hand on his chin and an eagle, one of his symbols, at his feet. His wife Juno sits at his right next to a peacock, one of her symbols. Jupiter’s children are also painted. Minerva (Athena) and Mars (Ares), gods of war are wearing helmets and carrying spears. Mercury (Hermes), the messenger god wears a winged helmet and carries a caduceus. Diana (Artemis), goddess of the hunt is wearing her symbol, a crescent moon on her hair. A partially nude Venus (Aphrodite), is accompanied by her winged son, Cupid (Eros)."


Silver Tetradrachm of Alexander III the Great (336-323 BC) from the city of Amphipolis. On the obverse: Head of Hercules, as Alexander the Great, right clad in lion's skin; on the reverse: Zeus seated left on throne Greek, inverted V above torch at left, monogram below throne.. Retrieved on August 9, 2012: »


Homer, The Odyssey, Leipzig: Philipp Reclam jun., 1875. Retrieved from Sacred Texts on August 2, 2012: »


Rieu, E. V., trans., The Odyssey, New York: Penguin Books, 1966, p. 351. Retrieved from Google Books on August 2, 2012: »


Butler, Samuel, trans., The Odyssey of Homer, London: A. C. Fifield, 1900, p. 323. Retrieved from Google Books on August 2, 2012: »


Voß, Johann Heinrich, trans., Homer's Werke: Homer's Odyssee, Stuttgart: J.G. Cotta, 1858 p. 278. Retrieved from Google Books on August 7, 2012: »


"Athene and Zeus Stop the Fighting", etching by Theodor van Thulden (1606-1669),Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco. Retrieved on August 7, 2012: »


Liddell, Henry George and Scott, Robert, A Greek-English Lexicon, Oxford. Clarendon Press. 1940. Retrieved from Perseus on August 7, 2012: »


Liddell, Henry George and Scott, Robert, An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon., Oxford. Clarendon Press. 1889. Retrieved from Perseus on August 7, 2012: »


‘waltenden’: from walten, to dispose, manage or rule over something. see Alder, G. J., A Dictionary of the German and English Languages, New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1881, p. 763.


‘Ordner’: orderer, ordainer, director. see Alder, G. J., A Dictionary of the German and English Languages, New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1881, p. 763.


Hesiod, Works and Days. Written around 700 BC. Retrieved on August 7, 2012: »


Hesiod, Works and Days. Retrieved from Perseus on August 7, 2012: »


Evelyn-White, Hugh G., trans., Hesiod, Homer, The Homeric Hymns and Homerica, New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1920, pp. 21–23. Retrieved from Google Books on August 7, 2012: »


Gebhardt, H., trans., Hesiodos, Werke und Tage, New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1920, pp. 21–23. Retrieved on August 7, 2012: »


Woodard, Roger D., The Cambridge Companion to Greek Mythology, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007, p. 129. Retrieved from Google Books on August 7, 2012: »

"Hesiod declares that the eye of Zeus, all-seeing and all-knowing, also watches how justice is administered in the city (lines 267-9). The Indo-Iranian match is again exact. Returning to the Mithra Yašt (Yašt 10), we find frequent reference to Iranian Mithra’s ten thousand eyes and thousand ears (Yašt 10.7, 82, 91, 141) and to all-knowing, all seeing Mithra’s thousandfold perception (Yašt 10.35, 82, 91, 107). In Yašt 10.24, 60, 69, 82, 141, and 143, in conjunction with references to his ten thousand spies. Mithra is said to be all-knowing – as also in 10.27, where he is depicted as punishing the wayward country – and in 10.46, where all-knowing Mithra himself is said to be a spy. Likewise in India, Varuna is said to behold all things (Atharva Veda 4.16.5, the reference to his spies) and to be all-knowing. As West rightly observes, “We are dealing here with a piece of Indo-European heritage.


Kuz'mina, Elena E., and Mallory, J. P., ed., The Origin of the Indo-Iranians, Boston: Brill, 2007, p. 182. Retrieved from Google Books on August 7, 2012: »

Images of a sun-faced character on the Saymaly-Tash and Tamgaly petroglyphs (Fig. 55.1, 3; 56) are probably the images of the most ancient Indo-Iranian Mithra = Sun God. The word sun in the Parthian language originates from this name. Another function of the god is being a guardian of a treaty and order (Gershevitch 1959). “Mithra, with eyes open, observes people” (Rigveda 3.59.1,4); he is depicted either with one eye, i.e., the sun, or in the ‘Mihr Yašt’ (10) in the Avesta he bears the epithet ‘thousand-eyed’.


Moore, Clifford Herschel, Religious Thought of the Greeks, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1916, p. 32. Retrieved from Google Books on August 7, 2012: »


"Fall of the Giants", Giulio Romano (1525-1535), Palazzo del Te, Mantova, Italy. Retrieved on August 16, 2012: » »



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